Artificial Intelligence

Dörfler, Viktor; Mattingly, James, ed. (2023) Artificial Intelligence. In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. SAGE Publications, London, UK, pp. 37-41. ISBN 9781071872383 (

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Artificial intelligence (AI) is loosely defined as machines that can accomplish tasks that humans would accomplish through thinking. This definition does not say anything about AI achieving this performance in ways similar to how we humans do it, however. The term artificial intelligence is used with two meanings. On the one hand, it refers to (artificially) intelligent machines and the ways of making them; in this sense, AI is primarily computer science and engineering. On the other hand, AI is also a transdisciplinary field of studying these machines. AI gurus such as Herbert Simon often emphasized that studying AI involves studying the human mind, and if we get it right, we will understand both AI and the human mind better in the end. Therefore, the field of AI involves various branches of hard sciences and engineering, but beyond these also biology, psychology, and philosophy.