Current and emerging approaches to noncompetitive AR inhibition

Riley, Christopher M. and Elwood, Jessica M. L. and Henry, Martyn C. and Hunter, Irene and Lopez-Fernandez, J. Daniel and McEwan, Iain J. and Jamieson, Craig (2023) Current and emerging approaches to noncompetitive AR inhibition. Medicinal Research Reviews, 43 (5). pp. 1701-1747. ISSN 0198-6325 (

[thumbnail of Riley-etal-MRR-2023-Current-and-emerging-approaches-to-noncompetitive-AR-inhibition]
Text. Filename: Riley_etal_MRR_2023_Current_and_emerging_approaches_to_noncompetitive_AR_inhibition.pdf
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (4MB)| Preview


The androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to be a key determinant in the pathogenesis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The current standard of care therapies targets the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can afford improvements to life expectancy often only in the order of months before resistance occurs. Emerging preclinical and clinical compounds that inhibit receptor activity via differentiated mechanisms of action which are orthogonal to current antiandrogens show promise for overcoming treatment resistance. In this review, we present an authoritative summary of molecules that noncompetitively target the AR. Emerging small molecule strategies for targeting alternative domains of the AR represent a promising area of research that shows significant potential for future therapies. The overall quality of lead candidates in the area of noncompetitive AR inhibition is discussed, and it identifies the key chemotypes and associated properties which are likely to be, or are currently, positioned to be first in human applications.