Overview of the TCV tokamak experimental programme

Reimerdes, H. and Agostini, M. and Alessi, E. and Alberti, S. and Andrebe, Y. and Arnichand, H. and Balbin, J. and Bagnato, F. and Baquero-Ruiz, M. and Bernert, M. and Bin, W. and Blanchard, P. and Blanken, T. C. and Boedo, J. A. and Brida, D. and Brunner, S. and Bogar, C. and Bogar, O. and Bolzonella, T. and Bombarda, F. and Bouquey, F. and Bowman, C. and Brunetti, D. and Buermans, J. and Bufferand, H. and Calacci, L. and Camenen, Y. and Carli, S. and Carnevale, D. and Carpanese, F. and Causa, F. and Cavalier, J. and Cavedon, M. and Cazabonne, J. A. and Cerovsky, J. and Chandra, R. and Chandrarajan Jayalekshmi, A. and Chellaï, O. and Chmielewski, P. and Choi, D. and Ciraolo, G. and Classen, I. G.J. and Coda, S. and Colandrea, C. and Dal Molin, A. and David, P. and Gahle, D. S. and Henderson, S. and Horacek, J. and Silva, M., The EUROfusion MST1 team (2022) Overview of the TCV tokamak experimental programme. Nuclear Fusion, 62 (4). 042018. ISSN 0029-5515 (https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ac369b)

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The tokamak à configuration variable (TCV) continues to leverage its unique shaping capabilities, flexible heating systems and modern control system to address critical issues in preparation for ITER and a fusion power plant. For the 2019-20 campaign its configurational flexibility has been enhanced with the installation of removable divertor gas baffles, its diagnostic capabilities with an extensive set of upgrades and its heating systems with new dual frequency gyrotrons. The gas baffles reduce coupling between the divertor and the main chamber and allow for detailed investigations on the role of fuelling in general and, together with upgraded boundary diagnostics, test divertor and edge models in particular. The increased heating capabilities broaden the operational regime to include Te/Ti ∼1 and have stimulated refocussing studies from L-mode to H-mode across a range of research topics. ITER baseline parameters were reached in type-I ELMy H-modes and alternative regimes with 'small' (or no) ELMs explored. Most prominently, negative triangularity was investigated in detail and confirmed as an attractive scenario with H-mode level core confinement but an L-mode edge. Emphasis was also placed on control, where an increased number of observers, actuators and control solutions became available and are now integrated into a generic control framework as will be needed in future devices. The quantity and quality of results of the 2019-20 TCV campaign are a testament to its successful integration within the European research effort alongside a vibrant domestic programme and international collaborations.