Biofeedback interventions

Cleland, Joanne and Preston, Jonathan L.; Williams, A.Lynn and McLeod, Sharynne and McCauley, Rebecca, eds. (2020) Biofeedback interventions. In: Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Paul Brookes, Baltimore, pp. 573-599. ISBN 9781681253596

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Biofeedback interventions use instrumentation to allow the speaker to visualise and modify their own speech production in real-time. This chapter focuses on three types of biofeedback used for treating children with speech disorders: Electropalatography (EPG), ultrasound, and acoustic biofeedback. EPG and ultrasound show real time articulatory movements while acoustic biofeedback uses either a spectrogram or linear predictive coding spectrum to distinguish speech sounds. All of the techniques are incorporated into a motor-learning paradigm where the visual display provides specific information about the nature of the articulatory or acoustic parameters required to produce accurate speech. Biofeedback is normally used to help school-aged children and adults with a wide variety of different types of speech sound disorders acquire lingual speech sounds which they have not acquired in the course of normal development. There is an emerging evidence base, currently consisting primarily of a large number of case studies and single case experimental designs, pointing towards the effectiveness of biofeedback.