Taguchi optimization and ultrasonic measurement of residual stresses in the friction stir welding

Javadi, Yashar and Sadeghi, Seyedali and Najafabadi, Mehdi Ahmadi (2014) Taguchi optimization and ultrasonic measurement of residual stresses in the friction stir welding. Materials and Design, 55. pp. 27-34. ISSN 0264-1275 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.10.021)

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The main goal of this study is optimization of residual stresses produced by friction stir welding (FSW) of 5086 aluminum plates. Taguchi method is employed as statistical design of experiment (DOE) to optimize welding parameters including feed rate, rotational speed, pin diameter and shoulder diameter. The optimization process depends on effect of the welding parameters on longitudinal residual stress, which is measured by employing ultrasonic technique. The ultrasonic measurement method is based on acoustoelasticity law, which describes the relation between acoustic waves and internal stresses of the material. In this study, the ultrasonic stress measurement is fulfilled by using longitudinal critically refracted (LCR) waves which are longitudinal ultrasonic waves propagated parallel to the surface within an effective depth. The ultrasonic stress measurement results are also verified by employing the hole-drilling standard technique. By using statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), it has been concluded that the most significant effect on the longitudinal residual stress peak is related to the feed rate while the pin and shoulder diameter have no dominant effect. The rotational speed variation leads to changing the welding heat input which affects on the residual stress considerably.