Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses

Higham, Andrew and Rattray, Nicholas J. W. and Dewhurst, Jennfier A. and Trivedi, Drupad K. and Fowler, Stephen J. and Goodacre, Royston and Singh, Dave (2016) Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses. Respiratory Research, 17. ISSN 1465-9921

[img]
Preview
Text (Higham-etal-RR-2016-Electronic-cigarette-exposure-triggers-neutrophil-inflammatory-responses)
Higham_etal_RR_2016_Electronic_cigarette_exposure_triggers_neutrophil_inflammatory_responses.pdf
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (1MB)| Preview

    Abstract

    Background The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils. Methods Neutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE) and the expression of CD11b and CD66b was measured by flow cytometry and MMP-9 and CXCL8 by ELISA. We also measured the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) and MMP-9, along with the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Finally we analysed the biochemical composition of ECVE by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results ECVE caused an increase in the expression of CD11b and CD66b, and increased the release of MMP-9 and CXCL8. Furthermore, there was an increase in NE and MMP-9 activity and an increase in p38 MAPK activation. We also identified several harmful chemicals in ECVE, including known carcinogens. Conclusions ECVE causes a pro-inflammatory response from human neutrophils. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use.