Prevalence of depression among Iranian patients under hemodialysis; a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abdi, Alireza and Dalvand, Sahar and Vahedian-azimi, Amir and Ghanei Gheshlagh, Reza and Kurdi, Amanj (2018) Prevalence of depression among Iranian patients under hemodialysis; a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Nephrology, 7 (4). pp. 224-232. ISSN 2251-8363 (

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Context: Depression is a highly prevalent and debilitating mental disorder, particularly among patients under hemodialysis, who are more susceptible to depression due to their complex treatment regimens, dietary limitations, side effects of medications and fear of disease outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the prevalence of depression in Iranian hemodialysis patients. Evidence Acquisitions: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, , search was done in national and international databases, including SID, MagIran, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Medline (via PubMed), and Scopus until from inception to March 2018. Key search terms included hemodialysis, renal replacement therapy, dialysis, end-stage renal disease, renal failure, depression and Iran along with all their possible combinations. Data were combined for meta-analysis using random effects model. Heterogeneity between studies was analysed by I2 test, and data were analyzed by STATA (Version 12) software. Results: The included 24 articles had a sample size of 2941 participants; the overall prevalence of depression in hemodialysis patients in Iran was 56.8% (95% CI: 50.5-63). The results of the univariate meta-regression analysis showed no significant correlation between prevalence of depression and methodological quality of articles (p=0.524), duration of hemodialysis (p=0.885), publication year (p=0.116), mean age of participants (p=0.224) and sample size (p=0.194). Conclusions: More than half of the hemodialysis patients in Iran suffer from depression. Given the overlap of depression symptoms with uremia in this group of patients, it is necessary to identify depression in these patients for early management and interventions.