Picture of UK Houses of Parliament

Leading national thinking on politics, government & public policy through Open Access research

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content by researchers in the School of Government & Public Policy, based within the Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences.

Research here is 1st in Scotland for research intensity and spans a wide range of domains. The Department of Politics demonstrates expertise in understanding parties, elections and public opinion, with additional emphases on political economy, institutions and international relations. This international angle is reflected in the European Policies Research Centre (EPRC) which conducts comparative research on public policy. Meanwhile, the Centre for Energy Policy provides independent expertise on energy, working across multidisciplinary groups to shape policy for a low carbon economy.

Explore the Open Access research of the School of Government & Public Policy. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Identification of novel metabolic pathways of sitagliptin (STG) by LC/MS and LC/MS2 after incubations with rat hepatcoytes

Khreit, Osama IG and Grant, Helen M and Henderson, Catherine and Watson, David G and Sutcliffe, Oliver B (2016) Identification of novel metabolic pathways of sitagliptin (STG) by LC/MS and LC/MS2 after incubations with rat hepatcoytes. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 7 (4). ISSN 1521-009X

[img]
Preview
Text (Khreit-etal-JDMD-2017-Identification-of-novel-metabolic-pathways-of-sitagliptin)
Khreit_etal_JDMD_2017_Identification_of_novel_metabolic_pathways_of_sitagliptin.pdf
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (612kB)| Preview

    Abstract

    Sitagliptin (STG), a drug for treating Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), has been associated with severe joint pain in some patients. In this paper the metabolic profile of the drug has been investigated in order to determine metabolism and formation of reactive compounds which may contribute to this adverse effect. Metabolism of STG was investigated in vitro by incubation with freshly isolated Sprague-Dawley rat hepatocytes, to characterize Phase I and II metabolites, and the reaction mixture analysed on a zwitter ionic hydrophilic interaction (ZIC®-HILIC) column using LC-MS and LC-MS2 utilising electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion mode. STG was metabolised to yield eleven metabolites, but in total only 3.1% of the parent drug was metabolised over 2 hrs incubation. These metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of accurate mass analyses and the major metabolic routes for STG determined to be via aromatic oxidation (0.86%) and desaturation of N-C and C-C of the piperazine (0.44%). Novel metabolites of STG detected using these methods included STG N-glucuronide (M6) and a di-ketone metabolite (M4), hydroxylation of both the amine group and aromatic ring followed by formation of glucuronide metabolites (M5, M5’), oxidative desaturation of NH2 and di-hydroxylation of metabolites followed by loss of HF. Also, observed was an N-sulfate metabolite (0.07%) and acetylation followed by glucuronide conjugation was also found in trace amounts (<0.01%). MS2 fragment ions provide additional structural confirmation providing a possible structure for most metabolites such as by fragment ion loss of the glucuronide group (176 Da) from metabolite M5 and loss of the phenolic sulfate (80 Da) of N-Sulfate metabolite (M7). Reduction reaction of piperazine ring probably generates highly electrophilic metabolite of STG, which may be susceptible to produce adverse effects. Furthermore, N-oxidation reaction forming reactive intermediates metabolic to give a hydroxylamine metabolite that may undergo further reactions to yield electrophilic intermediate metabolites.