Effect of additive concentration during copper deposition using EnFACE electrolyte

Dela Pena, E.M. and Bains, N. and Hussain, A. and Cobley, A. and Roy, Sudipta (2015) Effect of additive concentration during copper deposition using EnFACE electrolyte. Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, 93 (6). pp. 288-293. ISSN 0020-2967 (https://doi.org/10.1080/00202967.2015.1117257)

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Copper deposition from solutions using high concentration of acid, metal ions and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and bis-(3-sulphopropyl) disulphide (SPS) and chloride ions (Cl-) is well known. A recent maskless micropatterning technology, which has the potential to replace the traditional photolithographic process, called EnFACE, proposed using an acid-free, low metal ion solution which is in direct contrast to those used in standard plating technology. In this work copper has been deposited using both standard electroplating solutions and those used in the EnFACE process. In the standard electrolyte 0.63 M CuSO4 and 2.04 M H2SO4 has been used, along with Gleam additives supplied by Dow Chemicals. For the Enface electrolyte, copper deposition has been carried out without any acid, and with different concentrations of additives between 17%-200% of those recommended by suppliers. 25 μm of metal has been plated on stainless steel coupons as suggested by ASTM, peeled off and subjected to ductility and resistance measurements. Scanning electron microscopy and electron back scatter diffraction have been carried out to determine the deposit morphology. It was found that copper deposits obtained from acid-free solutions containing low concentration of metal ion and additives produced copper deposits with properties which are comparable to those obtained from standard electrolytes. The optimum additive concentration for the EnFACE electrolyte was 50% of the supplier recommended value.