The awareness of renal stones amongst Syrian refugees in northern Jordan

Alaqabani, Hakam and Omar, Hani and Barham, Sara Yaser and Al Zuaini, Hashim H. and Ugorenko, Agata and Khaleel, Anas (2024) The awareness of renal stones amongst Syrian refugees in northern Jordan. PLoS ONE, 19 (6). e0300999. ISSN 1932-6203 (

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Kidney Stone Disease (KSD) is a globally prevalent condition that can be effectively addressed through proper education. This study investigated the awareness of kidney stones among refugees residing in northern Jordan. A questionnaire was administered to 487 refugees of diverse ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Notably, 97.3% of the respondents had not attended university, and 30.8% held unskilled jobs. Upon familiarizing themselves with the signs and symptoms of kidney stones, 16.22% of men and 12.32% of women reported experiencing such symptoms. This revealed a significant association, suggesting that men might be more susceptible to developing kidney stones than women due to a lack of medical follow-up and examination for men in the camp. However, 38.77% of individuals were uncertain whether they had kidney stones. Furthermore, 38.96% of refugees were unsure about which healthcare professional to consult when experiencing kidney stone symptoms. This report highlights a serious issue with refugees’ knowledge of the symptoms, causes, and treatments for kidney stones. The results indicate that Syrian refugees face challenges in acquiring adequate disease awareness, potentially related to issues of migration and war, including low levels of education, limited income, living in camps, and difficulties accessing treatments when needed. Implementing additional policies is necessary to address these challenges among Syrian refugees; however, further studies are needed to validate these findings.