Grid integration of offshore wind power : standards, control, power quality and transmission

Wu, Dan and Seo, Gab-Su and Xu, Lie and Su, Chi and Kocewiak, Łukasz and Sun, Yin and Qin, Zian (2024) Grid integration of offshore wind power : standards, control, power quality and transmission. IEEE Open Journal of Power Electronics, 5. pp. 583-604. ISSN 2644-1314 (

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Offshore wind is expected to be a major player in the global efforts toward decarbonization, leading to exceptional changes in modern power systems. Understanding the impacts and capabilities of the relatively new and uniquely positioned assets in grids with high integration levels of inverter-based resources, however, is lacking, raising concerns about grid reliability, stability, power quality, and resilience, with the absence of updated grid codes to guide the massive deployment of offshore wind. To help fill the gap, this paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art technologies of offshore wind power grid integration. First, the paper investigates the most current grid requirements for wind power plant integration, based on a harmonized European Network of Transmission System Operators (ENTSO-E) framework and notable international standards, and it illuminates future directions. The paper discusses the wind turbine and wind power plant control strategies, and new control approaches, such as grid-forming control, are presented in detail. The paper reviews recent research on the ancillary services that offshore wind power plants can potentially provide, which, when harmonized, will not only comply with regulations but also improve the value of the asset. The paper explores topics of wind power plant harmonics, reviewing the latest standards in detail and outlining mitigation methods. The paper also presents stability analysis methods for wind power plants, with discussions centered on validity and computational efficiency. Finally, the paper discusses wind power plant transmission solutions, with a focus on high-voltage direct-current topologies and controls.