Towards the Human Digital Twin : definition and design - a survey

Lauer-Schmaltz, Martin Wolfgang and Cash, Philip and Hansen, John Paulin and Maier, Anja (2024) Towards the Human Digital Twin : definition and design - a survey. Other. arXiv, Ithaca, NY. (

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Human Digital Twins (HDTs) are a fast-emerging technology with significant potential in fields ranging from healthcare to sports. HDTs extend the traditional understanding of Digital Twins by representing humans as the underlying physical entity. This has introduced several significant challenges, including ambiguity in the definition of HDTs and a lack of guidance for their design. This survey brings together the recent advances in the field of HDTs to guide future developers by proposing a first cross-domain definition of HDTs based on their characteristics, as well as eleven key design considerations that emerge from the associated challenges. This paper is an extension of the following paper: Lauer-Schmaltz MW, Cash P, Hansen JP, Maier A. Designing Human Digital Twins for Behaviour-Changing Therapy and Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review. Proceedings of the Design Society. 2022;2:1303-1312. doi: