Time-optimal control of ship manoeuvring under wave loads

Zhang, Ming and Kim, Daejeong and Tezdogan, Tahsin and Yuan, Zhi-Ming (2024) Time-optimal control of ship manoeuvring under wave loads. Ocean Engineering, 293. 116627. ISSN 0029-8018 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2023.116627)

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Ship manoeuvrability of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) revolutionise the maritime industry. However, this paradigm shift necessitates the advancement of manoeuvring control models to meet the complex demands of autonomous navigation. This paper addresses the need for an improved manoeuvring control model for MASS, particularly concerning path planning and tracking in the presence of wave loads. The paper establishes a comprehensive mathematical model for ship manoeuvring, considering forces acting on the ship's hull, propellers, rudders, and wave loads. A time optimisation model using a spatial reformulation approach is introduced. A nonlinear Model Predictive Control (MPC) model is presented for path planning and tracking, with a case study investigating the influence of wave load and comparing two control strategies. 10%–20% of time consumption increases if the wave load exists. This research bridges the gap in existing literature by incorporating wave loads into MPC-based control models for MASS. The findings shed light on the significance of wave loads in ship manoeuvring and provide valuable insights into effective control strategies for autonomous vessels operating in real-world sea conditions.