Smart window technology and its potential for net-zero buildings : a review

Mustafa, Muhammad Norhaffis and Mohd Abdah, Muhammad Amirul Aizat and University, Sunway and Moreno-Rangel, Alejandro and Radwan, Amr and Khalid, Mohammad (2023) Smart window technology and its potential for net-zero buildings : a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 181. 113355. ISSN 1879-0690 (

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The energy consumption of buildings, particularly heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, exceeds that of transportation and industry combined. Future projections show a concerning increase in building energy consumption, prompting researchers to investigate the potential of smart window technology to mitigate this issue. However, current research on smart windows has primarily focused on individual functionalities that do not meet consumer demands. Therefore, researchers must exploit the inherent properties of materials to develop multifunctional smart windows that can cater to consumer needs. The integration of smart windows into the construction of green buildings shows great promise, but mutual working mechanisms must be achieved to produce a synergistic effect toward high-performance smart window technology. Multifunctional smart windows can be achieved by incorporating applications, such as electrochromic, thermochromic, photochromic, and supercapacitor technologies, into one device. Implementing multifunctional smart windows is possible if the mechanisms and properties of composite materials meet both criteria for feasible applications. In evaluating the feasibility of integrating electrochromic and energy conversion devices, this review assesses the state-of-the-art smart window technology, limitations and roadblocks to commercialization, and potential materials for smart window technology. Notably, there is no previous review paper on the feasibility of integrating energy storage and energy harvesting applications to produce smart windows technology and its potential for net-zero buildings. In the future, multifunctional smart windows technology could be applied to more buildings and retrofits to reduce energy consumption and increase human comfort.