Developing and testing a general framework for conducting transdisciplinary research

Butt, Anosh Nadeem and Dimitrijević, Branka (2023) Developing and testing a general framework for conducting transdisciplinary research. Sustainability, 15 (5). 4596. ISSN 2071-1050 (

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Complex societal problems cannot be resolved without transdisciplinary research (TDR). Currently, there is no focused communication platform or commonly shared research framework for conducting TDR. The current study is a continuation of the exploration of collaborations in multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and TDR to identify ideas that could contribute to developing and testing a general framework for conducting TDR. The systematic literature review in this study dis- covered three main themes (TDR initiation, TDR management, and transdisciplinary knowledge exchange). These themes formed three phases of a general framework for conducting TDR. The novelty of the presented phased general framework for conducting TDR relates to the type of learn- ing and outputs that are required at the end of each related action of all associated stages of the three phases to enable all participants to participate in TDR. The logical sequence of these actions and associated stages and phases were verified through a survey of academics and industry profession- als internationally. The findings evidenced that improved communication between academics and industry professionals can respond to complex societal problems such as sustainable development, global environmental change, and environmental crises. The findings of the current research will enable the development of a transdisciplinary collaboration framework (TCF) for the nature-based design (NBD) of sustainable buildings aligned with the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Work.