The impact of solvent selection on the characteristics of niosome nanoparticles prepared by microfluidic mixing

Obeid, Mohammad A. and Haifawi, Saja and Khadra, Ibrahim (2023) The impact of solvent selection on the characteristics of niosome nanoparticles prepared by microfluidic mixing. International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X, 5. 100168. ISSN 2590-1567 (

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The aim of this work was to assess the impact of solvent selection on the characteristics of niosomes prepared by microfluidic mixing. To achieve this, niosomes were manufactured using bench-scale microfluidic mixing systems by changing the type of aqueous and/or organic solvents used to prepare the particles. Niosomes were prepared using different non-ionic surfactants and cholesterol compositions with different solvents and evaluated to investigate the influence of organic and aqueous solvents on the particle's physiochemical characteristics. Here we demonstrated that the solvent selection is a key factor to be considered during the preparation of niosomes with microfluidic mixing. The type of organic solvent was shown to significantly affect the size and the size distribution of the prepared particles. In general, niosome size increased with increasing organic solvent polarity, without affecting the niosomes stability. Moreover, changing the aqueous solvent used to hydrate the lipid components significantly (p < 0.05) affected the characteristics of the prepared niosomes in terms of particles size, size distribution, and surface charge. This impact of solvent selection on the final product is dependent on the lipid components where niosomes prepared with different compositions will have different characteristics when changing the type of organic and/or aqueous solvents. The apparent encapsulation efficiency of quinine as a model hydrophobic drug was subsequently shown to be significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the type of the organic solvent used to prepare the niosomes, while the impact of the organic solvent had less impact on the apparent encapsulation of atenolol as a model hydrophilic drug.