Consideration of compound drivers and impacts in the disaster risk reduction cycle

van den Hurk, Bart J.J.M. and White, Christopher J. and Ramos, Alexandre M. and Ward, Philip J. and Martius, Olivia and Olbert, Indiana and Roscoe, Kathryn and Goulart, Henrique M.D. and Zscheischler, Jakob (2023) Consideration of compound drivers and impacts in the disaster risk reduction cycle. iScience, 26 (3). 106030. ISSN 2589-0042 (

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Consideration of compound drivers and impacts are often missing from applications within the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) cycle, leading to poorer understanding of risk and benefits of actions. The need to include compound considerations is known, but lack of guidance is prohibiting practitioners from including these considerations. This article makes a step toward practitioner guidance by providing examples where consideration of compound drivers, hazards, and impacts may affect different application domains within disaster risk management. We discern five DRR categories and provide illustrative examples of studies that highlight the role of “compound thinking” in early warning, emergency response, infrastructure management, long-term planning, and capacity building. We conclude with a number of common elements that may contribute to the development of practical guidelines to develop appropriate applications for risk management.