Comparative safety assessment of LNG re-liquefaction systems applied on LNG carriers

Kapellas, Nikolaos and Jeong, Byongug (2022) Comparative safety assessment of LNG re-liquefaction systems applied on LNG carriers. Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping, 6 (4). pp. 185-198. ISSN 2572-5084 (

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This research was aimed to evaluate the safety of the LNG cargo compressor room against unwanted gas leakage from two different re-liquefaction systems applicable for an LNG carrier: 1) the Partial (Full) Re-liquefaction System (P(F)RS) and 2) the combination of Partial Re-liquefaction System and Mixed Refrigerant Re-liquefaction system (PRS+MRS). To achieve this goal, quantitative risk assessment was carried out with the integration of system hierarchical modelling, statistical analysis, and CFD simulation. The frequency of initial leakages, occurring to each component of the re-liquefaction systems, was analysed, whereas for the consequence analysis, a CFD program of PyroSim was employed to simulate the gas dispersion in the confined room fitted with mechanical ventilation systems. In addition, various ventilation capacities were investigated with changes in their allocations in the room in order to determine these parametric influences on the results. The risk level of re-liquefaction systems was determined in a quantitative way. Research results clearly presented the importance of the proper arrangement of the ventilation systems. The risk levels were estimated at 5.6 E-3/year for P(F)RS whereas about 9.6 E-3/year for the PRS+MRS in consideration of current regulations. However, the increase in the ventilation capacity was found to reduce the risk levels. The research findings are highly believed to offer meaningful guidance into future safety regulatory frameworks.