Low hardware consumption, resolution-configurable gray code oscillator time-to- digital converters implemented in 16nm, 20nm and 28nm FPGAs

Wang, Yu and Xie, Wujun and Chen, Haochang and Li, David Day-Uei (2022) Low hardware consumption, resolution-configurable gray code oscillator time-to- digital converters implemented in 16nm, 20nm and 28nm FPGAs. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. ISSN 0278-0046 (https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2022.3174299)

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Abstract

This paper presents a low-hardware consumption, resolution-configurable, automatically calibrating gray code oscillator time-to-digital converter (GCO-TDC) in Xilinx 16nm UltraScale+, 20nm UltraScale and 28nm Virtex-7 field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The proposed TDC utilizes LUTs as delay elements and has several innovations: 1) a sampling matrix structure to improve the resolution. 2) a virtual bin calibration method (VBCM) to achieve configurable resolutions and automatic calibration. 3) hardware implementation of the VBCM in standard FPGA devices. We implemented and evaluated a 16-channel TDC system in all three FPGAs. The UltraScale+ version achieved the best resolution (least significant bit, LSB) of 20.97 ps with 0.09 LSB averaged peak-to-peak differential nonlinearity (DNLpk-pk). The UltraScale and Virtex-7 versions achieved the best resolutions of 36.01 ps with 0.10 LSB averaged DNLpk-pk and 34.84 ps with 0.08 LSB averaged DNLpk-pk, respectively.

ORCID iDs

Wang, Yu, Xie, Wujun ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0483-8639, Chen, Haochang and Li, David Day-Uei ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6401-4263;