Beam dynamic study of a Ka-band microwave undulator and its potential drive sources

Zhang, Liang and Donaldson, Craig R. and Clarke, Jim and Easton, Jack and Robertson, Craig W. and Whyte, Colin G. and Cross, Adrian W. (2022) Beam dynamic study of a Ka-band microwave undulator and its potential drive sources. Scientific Reports, 12. 7071. ISSN 2045-2322 (

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Microwave undulators (MUs) have great potential to be an alternative solution to permanent magnet undulators in a free electron laser (FEL) when shorter undulator periods are required. In this paper, the factors that affect the choice of the high-power drive sources were studied via a Ka-band cavity-type MU with a corrugated waveguide proposed for the CompactLight X-ray FEL. They include the technology of the high-power vacuum electronic devices, the quality factor of the MU cavity that was demonstrated by prototyping a short section of the MU structure, and the beam dynamic study of the electrons’ trajectories inside the MU. It showed that at high beam energy, a high-power oscillator is feasible to be used as the drive source. At low beam energy, the maximum transverse drift distance becomes larger therefore an amplifier has to be used to minimize the drift distance of the electrons by controlling the injection phase.