Review—a conceptual analysis on ceramic materials used for dental practices : manufacturing techniques and microstructure

Kandavalli, Samantha Ratna and Kandavalli, Sunanda Ratna and Ruban, Rajesh S. and Lo, Chih Hung and Kumar, Ravinder and BakrElshalakany, Abou and Pruncu, Catalin (2022) Review—a conceptual analysis on ceramic materials used for dental practices : manufacturing techniques and microstructure. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 11 (5). 053005. ISSN 2162-8777 (

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In the era of biomaterials evolution, ceramic materials are playing a notable role in dental practices. Ceramics have been used in dental applications for several decades because of its important properties such as suitable biological incorporation into human body, surface colouration, enhanced surface morphology, mechanical characteristics, physiochemical integration, durability and lifespan. There are numerous complications in the fabrication and production of ceramics by manufacturers. Therefore, many research and development has been performed to further improve and understand the manufacturing mechanism that occurs on the ceramic materials. These efforts are not only able to improve the fundamental understanding of the material but also help to meet the customer satisfaction and quality of production. This review article mainly provides an insight of various ceramic materials with a focus on their properties including stability, strength, and heat resistance. It is corroborated with a detailed account of various ceramic fabrication processing techniques with their applications that include sol-gel casting, hot pressing and phase inversion methods. In summary, some critical suggestions as well as detailed scope of future aspects and frontiers have been outlined to provide robust improvements for research and development platforms.