Raman spectroscopy in prostate cancer : techniques, applications and advancements

Gaba, Fortis and Tipping, William J. and Salji, Mark and Faulds, Karen and Graham, Duncan and Leung, Hing Y. (2022) Raman spectroscopy in prostate cancer : techniques, applications and advancements. Cancers, 14 (6). 1535. ISSN 2072-6694 (https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061535)

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Optical techniques are widely used tools in the visualisation of biological species within complex matrices, including biopsies, tissue resections and biofluids. Raman spectroscopy is an emerging analytical approach that probes the molecular signature of endogenous cellular biomolecules under biocompatible conditions with high spatial resolution. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in prostate cancer include biopsy analysis, assessment of surgical margins and monitoring of treatment efficacy. The advent of advanced Raman imaging techniques, such as stimulated Raman scattering, is creating opportunities for real-time in situ evaluation of prostate cancer. This review provides a focus on the recent preclinical and clinical achievements in implementing Raman-based techniques, highlighting remaining challenges for clinical applications. The research and clinical results achieved through in vivo and ex vivo Raman spectroscopy illustrate areas where these evolving technologies can be best translated into clinical practice.