Safety comparison analysis between LNG/LH2 for bunkering operation

Tofalos, Charalampos and Jeong, Byongug and Jang, Hayoung (2020) Safety comparison analysis between LNG/LH2 for bunkering operation. Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping, 4 (4). pp. 135-150. ISSN 2572-5084 (

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This paper was to conduct a comparative analysis between two credible marine fuels: LNG and hydrogen from safety perspective. As the first step, a bulk carrier 80,000 DWT Kamsarmax was selected as the case ship, whereas the conceptual design of retrofitting the bunkering system was implemented. In order to gain important insights into risk levels of those fuels associated with bunkering, accidental fire/explosion scenarios were developed, and the potential risks of those adverse situations were quantified. The results were interpreted as a form of the levels of safety zones applicable for bunkering. As the first attempt to compare the risk of two promising marine fuels, this paper is highly believed to give some meaningful insights into proper understanding of risk levels, thereby establishing safety practices and conducting future regulatory frameworks to mitigate those risks accordingly.


Tofalos, Charalampos, Jeong, Byongug ORCID logoORCID: and Jang, Hayoung;