E-agricultural supply chain management coupled with blockchain effect and cooperative strategies

Alkahtani, Mohammed and Khalid, Qazi Salman and Jalees, Muhammad and Omair, Muhammad and Hussain, Ghulam and Pruncu, Catalin Iulian (2021) E-agricultural supply chain management coupled with blockchain effect and cooperative strategies. Sustainability, 13 (2). 816. ISSN 2071-1050 (https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020816)

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The agricultural industry is highly underdeveloped and requires transformation in technology for food safety and reliability. A digital world is relying on blockchain technology for the successful implementation of sustainable e-agricultural supply chain management (e-Agri-SCM). In current advancements of blockchain in digital marketing, product website design (web design) is essential to streamline the requirements of the customer and the expectations of supply chain partners. The current research has incorporated the blockchain effect by web design elements into the agricultural supply chain management (Agri-SCM) study. In addition, partners in the digital marketing supply chain (DM-SCM) are also facing issues to identify significant web design elements-based blockchain technology to gain maximum profit. Therefore, a cooperative (Co-op) sustainable e-agricultural SCM model is developed in this study by considering the web design index and variable demand to decide shipments, selling price, cycle time, and advertisement cost for agriculture products. The uncertainties in the model due to intangible web design elements and basic costs are dealt with by the application of the fuzzy system whereas carbon emission is also considered for providing cleaner production. A real-time application of the proposed model is done by undertaking five different cases based on mutual share, demand curve, and advertisement budget among participants. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to identify important factors of the total profit. Findings of this work include significant web design elements (WDEs) i.e., web graphics, search engine optimization, cyber-security, fast loading, and navigation, as essentials for digital marketing to convince customers towards the product in a global SCM. The numerical results and managerial insights are advantageous for managers to get maximum profit by cooperative and digital marketing strategies to attain e-Agri-SCM.