Reliability, availability, maintainability data review for the identification of trends in offshore wind energy applications

Cevasco, D. and Koukoura, S. and Kolios, A. J. (2021) Reliability, availability, maintainability data review for the identification of trends in offshore wind energy applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 136. 110414. ISSN 1879-0690 (

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This work presents a comprehensive review and discussion of the identification of critical components of the currently installed and next generation of offshore wind turbines. A systematic review on the reliability, availability, and maintainability data of both offshore and onshore wind turbines is initially performed, collecting the results from 24 initiatives, at system and subsystem level. Due to the scarcity of data from the offshore wind industry, the analysis is complemented with the extensive experience from onshore structures. Trends based on the deployment parameters for the influence of design characteristics and environmental conditions on the onshore wind turbines' reliability and availability are first investigated. The estimation of the operational availability for a set of offshore wind farm scenarios allowed a comparison with the recently published performance statistics and the discussion of the integrity of the data available to date. The failure statistics of the systems deployed offshore are then discussed and compared to the onshore ones, with regard to their normalised results. The availability calculations supported the hypothesis of the negative impact of the offshore environmental conditions on the reliability figures. Nonetheless, similarities in the reliability figures of the blade adjustment system and the maintainability of the power generation and the control systems are outlined. Finally, to improve the performance prediction of future offshore projects, recommendations on the effort worth putting into research and data collection are provided.