Strength–ductility balance of powder metallurgy Ti–2Fe–2W alloy extruded at high-temperature

Bahador, Abdollah and Issariyapat, Ammarueda and Umeda, Junko and Yamanoglu, Ridvan and Pruncu, Catalin and Amrin, Astuty and Kondoh, Katsuyoshi (2021) Strength–ductility balance of powder metallurgy Ti–2Fe–2W alloy extruded at high-temperature. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 14. pp. 677-691. ISSN 2238-7854 (

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This study aims to improve the mechanical properties of a Ti–2Fe base alloy by adding W solute and performing hot extrusion at a high temperature (1000 °C). W was added at 0, 1, 2, and 3 wt% using the powder metallurgy route and homogenization heat treatment. The as-extruded materials predominantly consisted of α phase with different microstructure morphologies; Ti–2Fe and Ti–2Fe–1W contained equiaxed α grains, while Ti–2Fe–2W and Ti–2Fe–3W showed equiaxed+acicular and acicular shape, respectively. Effective grain refinement was obtained in Ti–2Fe–2W (average grain size: ~1.64 μm), which greatly contributed to the strengthening. The solid solution of W was studied with X-ray powder diffraction, where a proportional increment of β lattice constant occurred as the W solute increased in the matrix (Ti–Fe). Additionally, electron backscatter diffraction analysis revealed that the W solution reduced the intensity of the prismatic texture along the extrusion direction. Based on the experimental evaluations, extruded Ti–2Fe–2W alloy exhibited a maximum yield strength of 925 MPa with excellent elongation 30% at room temperature, indicating a remarkable trade-off in strength and ductility.