Influence diagrams for off-site construction manufacturing risk assessment in China

Zhang, Lin and Agapiou, Andrew (2021) Influence diagrams for off-site construction manufacturing risk assessment in China. Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, Procurement and Law, 174 (4). pp. 145-162. ISSN 1751-4304 (

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Component production in off-site manufacturing is an indispensable part of off-site construction. Lack of management of this new process results in deviations from project objectives by causing time and cost overruns, safety issues, quality deficiencies, technical problems and a lack of client satisfaction. To solve this problem, this study seeks to identify the risks associated with off-site construction manufacturing in China. Interviews were conducted to elicit the views of 25 construction professionals in China, including owners, consultants, manufacturers and contractors. A total of 13 factors were identified from three nodes or variables. The paper also indicates that the most dominant risk pertains to ‘design error’. The findings identify the risks of off-site manufacturing through the whole life cycle, providing a valuable reference for manufacturers to understand the risks in off-site construction and to help them make better decisions to avoid such risks.