The zoo of modes of convection in liquids vibrated along the direction of the temperature gradient

Crewdson, Georgie and Lappa, Marcello (2021) The zoo of modes of convection in liquids vibrated along the direction of the temperature gradient. Fluids, 6 (1). 30. ISSN 2311-5521 (

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Thermovibrational flow can be seen as a variant of standard thermogravitational convection where steady gravity is replaced by a time-periodic acceleration. As in the parent phenomena, this type of thermal flow is extremely sensitive to the relative directions of the acceleration and the prevailing temperature gradient. Starting from the realization that the overwhelming majority of research has focused on circumstances where the directions of vibrations and of the imposed temperature difference are perpendicular, we concentrate on the companion case in which they are parallel. The increased complexity of this situation essentially stems from the properties that are inherited from the corresponding case with steady gravity, i.e., the standard Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The need to overcome a threshold to induce convection from an initial quiescent state, together with the opposite tendency of acceleration to damp fluid motion when its sign is reversed, causes a variety of possible solutions that can display synchronous, non-synchronous, time-periodic, and multi-frequency responses. Assuming a square cavity as a reference case and a fluid with Pr = 15, we tackle the problem in a numerical framework based on the solution of the governing timedependent and non-linear equations considering different amplitudes and frequencies of the applied vibrations. The corresponding vibrational Rayleigh number spans the interval from Ra ω = 10 4 to Ra ω = 10 6. It is shown that a kaleidoscope of possible variants exist whose nature and variety calls for the simultaneous analysis of their temporal and spatial behavior, thermofluid-dynamic (TFD) distortions, and the Nusselt number, in synergy with existing theories on the effect of periodic accelerations on fluid systems.