Sustainable manufacturing and parametric analysis of mild steel grade 60 by deploying CNC milling machine and Taguchi method

Azim, Shakir and Noor, Sahar and Khalid, Qazi Salman and Khan, Aqib Mashood and Pimenov, Danil Yurievich and Ahmad, Imran and Babar, Abdur Rehman and Pruncu, Catalin I. (2020) Sustainable manufacturing and parametric analysis of mild steel grade 60 by deploying CNC milling machine and Taguchi method. Metals, 10 (10). 1303. ISSN 2075-4701 (

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Design and manufacturing are the key steps in the sustainable manufacturing of any product to be produced. Within the perspective of injection molds production, increased competitiveness and repeated changes in the design require a complete optimized manufacturing process. Local and minor improvements in the milling process do not generally lead to an optimized manufacturing process. The goal of the new geometry and parametric analysis of the mould is to reduce the quality issues in mild steel grade 60. In this explicit research, the surface roughness (smoothness) of indigenously produced injection moulds in the local market in Pakistan is investigated. The CNC milling machine (five-axis) is used for the manufacturing of an injection mould, and the Taguchi method of the design of the experiment is applied for parameters optimization. Hence, the overall process is assisted in balancing the milling machine parameters to trim down the surface roughness issue in mild steel moulds and increase their sustainability. The spindle speed (rpm), the depth of cut (mm), and the feed rate (mm/rev) are considered as input variables for process optimization, and the experiments are performed on mild steel grade 60. It is deduced that the combination of a spindle speed of 800 rpm, feed rate of 10 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.5 mm is the best case in case of minimum surface roughness, which leads to sustainable products. It is also deduced from ANOVA, that the spindle speed is a factor that affects the surface roughness of mild steel products, while the feed rate turns out to be insignificant.


Azim, Shakir, Noor, Sahar, Khalid, Qazi Salman, Khan, Aqib Mashood, Pimenov, Danil Yurievich, Ahmad, Imran, Babar, Abdur Rehman and Pruncu, Catalin I. ORCID logoORCID:;