The 2020 UV emitter roadmap

Amano, Hiroshi and Collazo, Ramón and De Santi, Carlo and Einfeldt, Sven and Funato, Mitsuru and Glaab, Johannes and Hagedorn, Sylvia and Hirano, Akira and Hirayama, Hideki and Ishii, Ryota and Kashima, Yukio and Kawakami, Yoichi and Kirste, Ronny and Kneissl, Michael and Martin, Robert and Mehnke, Frank and Meneghini, Matteo and Ougazzaden, Abdallah and Parbrook, Peter J and Rajan, Siddharth and Reddy, Pramod and Römer, Friedhard and Ruschel, Jan and Sarkar, Biplab and Scholz, Ferdinand and Schowalter, Leo J and Shields, Philip and Sitar, Zlatko and Sulmoni, Luca and Wang, Tao and Wernicke, Tim and Weyers, Markus and Witzigmann, Bernd and Wu, Yuh-Renn and Wunderer, Thomas and Zhang, Yuewei (2020) The 2020 UV emitter roadmap. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 53 (50). 503001. ISSN 0022-3727 (

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Solid state UV emitters have many advantages over conventional UV sources. The (Al,In,Ga)N material system is best suited to produce LEDs and laser diodes from 400 nm down to 210 nm—due to its large and tuneable direct band gap, n- and p-doping capability up to the largest bandgap material AlN and a growth and fabrication technology compatible with the current visible InGaN-based LED production. However AlGaN based UV-emitters still suffer from numerous challenges compared to their visible counterparts that become most obvious by consideration of their light output power, operation voltage and long term stability. Most of these challenges are related to the large bandgap of the materials. However, the development since the first realization of UV electroluminescence in the 1970s shows that an improvement in understanding and technology allows the performance of UV emitters to be pushed far beyond the current state. One example is the very recent realization of edge emitting laser diodes emitting in the UVC at 271.8 nm and in the UVB spectral range at 298 nm. This roadmap summarizes the current state of the art for the most important aspects of UV emitters, their challenges and provides an outlook for future developments.