Multi-Moji : Combining thermal, vibrotactile & visual stimuli to expand the affective range of feedback

Wilson, Graham and Brewster, Stephen A.; (2017) Multi-Moji : Combining thermal, vibrotactile & visual stimuli to expand the affective range of feedback. In: CHI 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings . ACM, USA, pp. 1743-1755. ISBN 9781450346559

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    Abstract

    This paper explores the combination of multiple concurrent modalities for conveying emotional information in HCI: temperature, vibration and abstract visual displays. Each modality has been studied individually, but can only convey a limited range of emotions within two-dimensional valence-arousal space. This paper is the first to systematically combine multiple modalities to expand the available affective range. Three studies were conducted: Study 1 measured the emotionality of vibrotactile feedback by itself; Study 2 measured the perceived emotional content of three bimodal combinations: vibrotactile + thermal, vibrotactile + visual and visual + thermal. Study 3 then combined all three modalities. Results show that combining modalities increases the available range of emotional states, particularly in the problematic top-right and bottom-left quadrants of the dimensional model. We also provide a novel lookup resource for designers to identify stimuli to convey a range of emotions.