A systematic review of East African-Indian family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Brazil

Duarte, Tonya Azevedo and Nery, Joilda Silva and Boechat, Neio and Pereira, Susan Martins and Simonsen, Vera and Oliveira, Martha and Gomes, Maria Gabriela Miranda and Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos and Barreto, Mauricio Lima and Barbosa, Theolis (2017) A systematic review of East African-Indian family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 21 (3). pp. 317-324. ISSN 1678-4391 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2017.01.005)

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Introduction The Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African-Indian (EAI) spoligotyping family (belonging to lineage 1, Indo-Oceanic, defined by the region of deletion RD239) is distributed worldwide, but is more prevalent in Southeast Asia, India, and East Africa. Studies in Latin America have rarely identified EAI. In this study, we describe the occurrence of the EAI family in Brazil. Methods EAI was identified in a systematic literature review of genetic diversity studies pertaining to M. tuberculosis in Brazil, as well as in a survey conducted in Salvador, Bahia, located in the northeastern region of this country. Results The EAI6-BGD1 spoligotyping family and the EAI5 Spoligotype International Type (SIT) 1983 clade were the most frequently reported, with wide distribution of this particular clade described in Brazil. The distribution of other EAI spoligotyping patterns with broader worldwide distribution was restricted to the southeastern region of the country. Conclusions EAI may be endemic at a low frequency in Brazil, with some clades indicating increased fitness with respect to this population.