Fast frequency response from energy storage systems - a review of grid standards, projects and technical issues

Meng, Lexuan and Zafar, Jawwad and Khadem, Shafiuzzaman K. and Collinson, Alan and Murchie, Kyle C. and Coffele, Federico and Burt, Graeme M. (2020) Fast frequency response from energy storage systems - a review of grid standards, projects and technical issues. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 11 (2). pp. 1566-1581. ISSN 1949-3053

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    Abstract

    Electric power systems foresee challenges in stability due to the high penetration of power electronics interfaced renewable energy sources. The value of energy storage systems (ESS) to provide fast frequency response has been more and more recognized. Although the development of energy storage technologies has made ESSs technically feasible to be integrated in larger scale with required performance, the policies, grid codes and economic issues are still presenting barriers for wider application and investment. Recent years, a few regions and countries have designed new services to meet the upcoming grid challenges. A number of grid-scale ESS projects are also implemented aiming to trial performance, demonstrate values, and gain experience. This paper makes a review on the above mentioned aspects, including the emerging frequency regulation services, updated grid codes and grid-scale ESS projects. Some key technical issues are also discussed and prospects are outlined.