Metrics for determining the frequency stability limits of a power system : a GB case study

Nedd, Marcel and Bukhsh, Waqquas and MacIver, Callum and Bell, Keith (2020) Metrics for determining the frequency stability limits of a power system : a GB case study. Electric Power Systems Research. ISSN 0378-7796 (

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The changing power landscape introduces concerns about frequency management in a power system with significant amounts of non-synchronous sources of power. In islanded power systems like Great Britain and Ireland, electricity system operators are sometimes forced to undertake very expensive redispatch actions, including curtailing large amounts of renewable generation to meet statutory frequency stability constraints. Consequently, there is an imminent need to understand and quantify the limits that these constraints pose on the power system and develop metrics that can be easily integrated into current system planning and operational paradigm. This paper analyses three such metrics for quantifying the containment limits of a power system at a given operating point. The paper argues that while the penetration of non-synchronous dispatch can indeed be used as the basis of a metric to define the containment limits of a power system, it does not account for variations in the contributions of other containment factors such as inertia. To address the aforementioned issue two alternatives are proposed: the first defines the containment limits of a power system without direct reference to penetration of non-synchronous power, instead it determines a relationship in terms of critical inertia. The second alternative improves upon the first and it considers the components of frequency stability constraints, offering an increased degree of flexibility in quantifying containment limits, and understanding the influence that certain key factors have on frequency containment.