Containing a credible loss to within frequency stability limits in a low inertia GB power system

Nedd, Marcel and Browell, Jethro and Bell, Keith and Booth, Campbell (2020) Containing a credible loss to within frequency stability limits in a low inertia GB power system. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 56 (2). pp. 1031-1039. ISSN 0093-9994 (

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There is a reduction in the percentage penetration of synchronous machines within the Great Britain (GB) power system leading to a decrease in inertia, and an increase in system rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) resulting from power imbalances. This raises the challenge of containing frequency deviations to within the relevant operational limits. As a result, steps need to be taken by the system operator to manage the risk to system security. In order to better understand this risk, this paper presents the challenge in light of the changing energy landscape and the current and future frequency response services available to contain frequency deviations. Although the current GB frequency response services may be capable of containing most events within frequency limits, in low inertia scenarios these responses alone are not capable of containing excursions within practical RoCoF limits. Consequently, further action must be taken to ensure system security. The system operator currently employs an interim solution of limiting the largest loss risk, depending on system inertia and the RoCoF limit. While this is suitable in the short-term, it is unlikely that this option will be cost-effective in the future.