Color-gradient lattice Boltzmann modeling of immiscible two-phase flows on partially wetting surfaces

Yu, Yuan and Liu, Haihu and Zhang, Yonghao and Liang, Dong (2018) Color-gradient lattice Boltzmann modeling of immiscible two-phase flows on partially wetting surfaces. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 232 (3). pp. 416-430. ISSN 0954-4062

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    Abstract

    A zero-interfacial-force condition is derived and implemented to improve the wetting boundary scheme for a lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model. This new wetting boundary scheme is validated by two static problems, i.e. a droplet resting on a flat surface and a cylindrical surface, and one dynamic problem, i.e. the capillary filling in a two-dimensional channel. In these simulations, we observe that non-physical mass transfer is suppressed and spurious velocities become smaller. Meanwhile, accurate results including dynamic contact line movement are achieved for a broad range of contact angles. The model is then applied to study the displacement of immiscible fluids in a two-dimensional channel. Both the displacement velocity and the change rate of finger length are found to exhibit a linear dependence on the contact angle at the viscosity ratio of unity. The displacement velocity decreases but the change rate of finger length increases with increasing capillary number, while the displacement velocity tends to be constant, i.e. two-thirds of the maximum inlet velocity, at high viscosity ratios or low capillary numbers. In contrast to the displacement velocity, the change rate of finger length is negligible at high viscosity ratios or low capillary numbers, where the finger length is in an equilibrium state, while the equilibrium finger length itself is smaller at a higher viscosity ratio or a lower capillary number.