Picture of boy being examining by doctor at a tuberculosis sanatorium

Understanding our future through Open Access research about our past...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content by researchers in the Centre for the Social History of Health & Healthcare (CSHHH), based within the School of Humanities, and considered Scotland's leading centre for the history of health and medicine.

Research at CSHHH explores the modern world since 1800 in locations as diverse as the UK, Asia, Africa, North America, and Europe. Areas of specialism include contraception and sexuality; family health and medical services; occupational health and medicine; disability; the history of psychiatry; conflict and warfare; and, drugs, pharmaceuticals and intoxicants.

Explore the Open Access research of the Centre for the Social History of Health and Healthcare. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Image: Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust. Wellcome Collection - CC-BY.

Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis : spotlight on Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering

MacRitchie, Neil and Grassia, Gianluca and Noonan, Jonathan and Garside, Paul and Graham, Duncan and Maffia, Pasquale (2017) Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis : spotlight on Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Heart, 104. pp. 460-467. ISSN 1468-201X

[img]
Preview
Text (MacRitchie-etal-Heart2017-Molecular-imaging-of-atherosclerosis-spotlight-on-Raman-spectroscopy)
MacRitchie_etal_Heart2017_Molecular_imaging_of_atherosclerosis_spotlight_on_Raman_spectroscopy.pdf
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (2MB) | Preview

Abstract

To accurately predict atherosclerotic plaque progression, a detailed phenotype of the lesion at the molecular level is required. Here, we assess the respective merits and limitations of molecular imaging tools. Clinical imaging includes contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), an inexpensive and non-toxic technique but with poor sensitivity. Computed tomography (CT) benefits from high spatial resolution but poor sensitivity coupled with an increasing radiation burden that limits multiplexing. Despite high sensitivity, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) have disadvantages when applied to multiplex molecular imaging due to poor spatial resolution, signal cross talk and increasing radiation dose. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is non-toxic, displays good spatial resolution but poor sensitivity. Pre-clinical techniques include near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), which provides good spatial resolution and sensitivity; however, multiplexing with NIRF is limited, due to photobleaching and spectral overlap. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy are label-free techniques that detect molecules based on the vibrations of chemical bonds. Both techniques offer fast acquisition times with Raman showing superior spatial resolution. Raman signals are inherently weak; however, leading to the development of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) that offers greatly increased sensitivity due to utilising metallic nanoparticles that can be functionalised with biomolecules targeted against plaque ligands while offering high multiplexing potential. This asset combined with high spatial resolution makes SERS an exciting prospect as a diagnostic tool. The ongoing refinements of SERS technologies such as deep tissue imaging and portable systems making SERS a realistic prospect for translation to the clinic.