Sensitivity of the advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy

Martynov, D. V. and Hall, E. D. and Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Anderson, R. A. and Anderson, S. B. and Arai, K. and Arain, M. A. and Aston, S. M. and Austin, L. and Ballmer, S. W. and Barbet, M. and Barker, David and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Batch, J. C. and Bell, A. S. and Belopolski, I. and Bergman, J. and Betzwieser, J. and Billingsley, G. and Birch, J. and Biscans, S. and Biwer, C. and Black, E. and Blair, C. D. and Bogan, C. and Bork, R. and Bridges, D. O. and Brooks, A. F. and Celerier, C. and Ciani, G. and Clara, F. and Cook, D. and Countryman, S. T. and Cowart, M. J. and Coyne, D. C. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Damjanic, M. and Dannenberg, R. and Danzmann, K. and Costa, C. F.Da Silva and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Derosa, R. T. and DeSalvo, R. and Dooley, K. L. and Doravari, S. and Driggers, J. C. and Dwyer, S. E. and Effler, A. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Factourovich, M. and Fair, H. and Feldbaum, D. and Fisher, R. P. and Foley, S. and Frede, M. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Gleason, J. R. and Goetz, R. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Grote, H. and Guido, C. J. and Gushwa, K. E. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hammond, G. and Hanks, J. and Hanson, J. and Hardwick, T. and Harry, G. M. and Heefner, J. and Heintze, M. C. and Heptonstall, A. W. and Hoak, D. and Hough, J. and Ivanov, A. and Izumi, K. and Jacobson, D.M. and James, Elizabeth and Jones, R. and Kandhasamy, S. and Karki, S. and Kasprzack, M. and Kaufer, S. and Kawabe, K. and Kells, W. and Kijbunchoo, N. and King, E. J. and King, P. J. and Kinzel, D. L. and Kissel, J. S. and Kokeyama, K. and Korth, W. Z. and Kuehn, G. and Kwee, P. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Le Roux, A. and Levine, B. M. and Lewis, J. B. and Lhuillier, V. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. J. and Lundgren, A. P. and Macdonald, T. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Markosyan, A. S. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Massinger, T. J. and Matichard, F. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McCormick, S. and McIntyre, G. and McIver, J. and Merilh, E. L. and Meyer, M. S. and Meyers, P. M. and Miller, J. and Mittleman, R. and Moreno, G. and Mueller, C. L. and Mueller, G. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Nuttall, L. K. and Oberling, J. and O'Dell, J. and Oppermann, P. and Oram, Richard J. and O'Reilly, B. and Osthelder, C. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Palamos, J. R. and Paris, H. R. and Parker, W. and Patrick, Z. and Pele, A. and Penn, S. and Phelps, M. and Pickenpack, M. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. and Poeld, J. and Principe, M. and Prokhorov, L. and Puncken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Quintero, E. A. and Raab, F. J. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Ramet, C. R. and Reed, C. M. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Roma, V. J. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ryan, K. and Sadecki, T. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, M. V. and Savage, R. L. and Schofield, R. M. S. and Schultz, B. and Schwinberg, P. and Sellers, D. and Sevigny, A. and Shaddock, D. A. and Shao, Z. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sigg, D. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith-Lefebvre, N. D. and Sorazu, B. and Staley, A. and Stein, A. J. and Stochino, A. and Strain, K. A. and Taylor, R. and Thomas, M. and Thomas, P. and Thorne, K. A. and Thrane, E. and Torrie, C. I. and Traylor, G. and Vajente, G. and Valdes, G. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vargas, M. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, P. J. and Venkateswara, K. and Vo, T. and Vorvick, C. and Waldman, S. J. and Walker, M. and Ward, R. L. and Warner, J. and Weaver, B. and Weiss, R. and Welborn, T. and Weßels, P. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Winkelmann, L. and Wipf, C. C. and Worden, J. and Wu, G. and Yamamoto, H. and Yancey, C. C. and Yu, H. and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. (2016) Sensitivity of the advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy. Physical Review D, 93 (11). 112004. ISSN 1550-2368

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    Abstract

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The first observation run of the Advanced LIGO detectors started in September 2015 and ended in January 2016. A strain sensitivity of better than 10-23/Hz was achieved around 100 Hz. Understanding both the fundamental and the technical noise sources was critical for increasing the astrophysical strain sensitivity. The average distance at which coalescing binary black hole systems with individual masses of 30 M could be detected above a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 was 1.3 Gpc, and the range for binary neutron star inspirals was about 75 Mpc. With respect to the initial detectors, the observable volume of the Universe increased by a factor 69 and 43, respectively. These improvements helped Advanced LIGO to detect the gravitational wave signal from the binary black hole coalescence, known as GW150914.