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Natural vaccine adjuvants and immunopotentiators derived from plants, fungi, marine organisms, and insects

Woods, N. and Niwasabutra, K. and Acevedo, R. and Igoli, John and Altwaijry, N.A. and Tusiimire, J. and Gray, A.I. and Watson, D.G. and Ferro, V.A. (2016) Natural vaccine adjuvants and immunopotentiators derived from plants, fungi, marine organisms, and insects. In: Immunopotentiators in Modern Vaccines. Academic Press, London, pp. 211-230. ISBN 9780128040195

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Abstract

Secondary metabolites from natural sources have made a significant contribution to medicine for millennia. In modern medicine, drugs developed from natural products have been used to treat infectious diseases, cancer, hypertension, and inflammation.1 Research on immunomodulators for application in vaccines has been sporadic, but it stands to reason that the field could better exploit the biodiversity of active compounds from natural sources. Most new chemical entities (NCE) have been inspired from plants, while microbes have also yielded a significant number of drugs.2,3 Increasingly, there are reports of NCE derived from fungi and marine sources,4,5 and animals.6 Although immunopotentiators mined from plants are well established, other organisms have also been evaluated.