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Residual stress generations in brazed tungsten dissimilar joints

Easton, D. and Wood, J. and Rahimi, S. and Galloway, A. and Zhang, Y. and Hardie, C. (2016) Residual stress generations in brazed tungsten dissimilar joints. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 44 (9). pp. 1-6. ISSN 0093-3813

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Understanding the residual stress state in brazed joints is crucial for the operational design and lifetime performance of the part in service. High-magnitude residual stresses are expected in the joined materials following cooling from brazing temperatures (≈950 °C) due to large mismatches in the thermal and mechanical properties. This paper aims at further understanding of the residual stresses caused when brazing tungsten to copper and tungsten to 316L austenitic steel using a eutectic gold-copper brazing alloy. These configurations are potentially useful for future diverter designs. Finite element analysis has been used to predict the brazing-induced stresses and residual stress measurements were carried out on the brazed joint by X-ray diffraction to validate the prediction model. Large residual stresses are predicted and measured in the tungsten; however, there is disagreement in the nature of the stress in the tungsten-copper configuration. Predicted stresses are highly tensile in nature close to the brazing interface, whereas the measured stresses are highly compressive. The disagreement is believed to be caused by the model not accurately simulating the complex brazing process. Residual stress measurements on the copper were not possible due to texturing during brazing, grain growth, and significant inelastic strains. There is excellent correlation between the measured and predicted stresses in the tungsten-316L configuration. High-tensile stresses were predicted in the tungsten (magnitude approximately 1000 MPa close to the braze interface) and high tensile stresses were measured (magnitude approximately 800 MPa in the same region). Joint misalignment of parent materials was also observed to significantly affect the residual stresses.