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Web crippling strength of cold-formed stainless steel lipped channel-sections with web openings subjected to interior-one-flange loading condition

Yousefi, Amir M. and Lim, James B.P. and Uzzaman, Asraf and Lian, Ying and Clifton, G. Charles and Young, Ben (2016) Web crippling strength of cold-formed stainless steel lipped channel-sections with web openings subjected to interior-one-flange loading condition. Steel and Composite Structures, 21 (3). pp. 629-659. ISSN 1229-9367

Text (Yousefi-etal-SCS-2016-Web-crippling-strength-of-cold-formed-stainless-steel-lipped-channel-sections)
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    In cold-formed stainless steel lipped channel-sections, web openings are becoming increasingly popular. Such openings, however, result in the sections becoming more susceptible to web crippling, especially under concentrated loads applied near the web opening. This paper presents the results of a finite element parametric study into the effect of circular web openings on the web crippling strength of cold-formed stainless steel lipped channelsections for the interior-one-flange (IOF) loading condition. This involves a bearing load applied to the top flange of a length of member, away from the end supports. The cases of web openings located centred beneath the bearing load (i.e. beneath the bearing plate delivering the load) and offset to the bearing plate, are considered. Three grades of stainless steel are considered: duplex EN1.4462, austenitic EN1.4404 and ferretic EN1.4003. In total, 2218 finite element models were analyzed. From the results of the parametric study, strength reduction factors for load bearing capacity are determined, where these reduction factors are applied to the bearing capacity calculated for a web without openings, to take account the influence of the web openings. The strength reduction factors are first compared to equations recently proposed for cold-formed carbon steel lipped channel-sections. It is shown that for the case of the duplex grade, the strength reduction factor equations for cold-formed carbon steel are conservative but only by 2%. However, for the cases of the austentic and ferritic grades, the cold-formed carbon steel equations are around 9% conservative. New strength reduction factor equations are proposed for all three stainless steel grades.