Path to AWAKE : evolution of the concept

Caldwell, A. and Adli, E. and Amorim, L. and Apsimon, R. and Argyropoulos, T. and Assmann, R. and Bachmann, A.-M. and Batsch, F. and Bauche, J. and Berglyd Olsen, V.K. and Bernardini, M. and Bingham, R. and Biskup, B. and Bohl, T. and Bracco, C. and Burrows, P.N. and Burt, G. and Buttenschön, B. and Butterworth, A. and Cascella, M. and Chattopadhyay, S. and Chevallay, E. and Cipiccia, S. and Damerau, H. and Deacon, L. and Dirksen, P. and Doebert, S. and Dorda, U. and Elsen, E. and Farmer, J. and Fartoukh, S. and Fedosseev, V. and Feldbaumer, E. and Fiorito, R. and Fonseca, R. and Friebel, F. and Geschonke, G. and Goddard, B. and Gorn, A.A. and Grulke, O. and Gschwendtner, E. and Hansen, J. and Hessler, C. and Hillenbrand, S. and Hofle, W. and Holloway, J. and Huang, C. and Hüther, M. and Jaroszynski, D. and Jensen, L. and Jolly, S. and Joulaei, A. and Kasim, M. and Keeble, F. and Kersevan, R. and Kumar, N. and Li, Y. and Liu, S. and Lopes, N. and Lotov, K.V. and Lu, W. and Machacek, J. and Mandry, S. and Martin, I. and Martorelli, R. and Martyanov, M. and Mazzoni, S. and Meddahi, M. and Merminga, L. and Mete, O. and Minakov, V.A. and Mitchell, J. and Moody, J. and Müller, A.-S. and Najmudin, Z. and Noakes, T.C.Q. and Norreys, P. and Osterhoff, J. and Öz, E. and Pardons, A. and Pepitone, K. and Petrenko, A. and Plyushchev, G. and Pozimski, J. and Pukhov, A. and Reimann, O. and Rieger, K. and Roesler, S. and Ruhl, H. and Rusnak, T. and Salveter, F. and Savard, N. and Schmidt, J. and von der Schmitt, H. and Seryi, A. and Shaposhnikova, E. and Sheng, Z.M. and Sherwood, P. and Silva, L. and Simon, F. and Soby, L. and Sosedkin, A.P. and Spitsyn, R.I. and Tajima, T. and Tarkeshian, R. and Timko, H. and Trines, R. and Tückmantel, T. and Tuev, P.V. and Turner, M. and Velotti, F. and Verzilov, V. and Vieira, J. and Vincke, H. and Wei, Y. and Welsch, C.P. and Wing, M. and Xia, G. and Yakimenko, V. and Zhang, H. and Zimmermann, F. (2016) Path to AWAKE : evolution of the concept. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. ISSN 0168-9002 (

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This paper describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability - a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in Gschwendtner et al. [1].


Caldwell, A., Adli, E., Amorim, L., Apsimon, R., Argyropoulos, T., Assmann, R., Bachmann, A.-M., Batsch, F., Bauche, J., Berglyd Olsen, V.K., Bernardini, M., Bingham, R. ORCID logoORCID:, Biskup, B., Bohl, T., Bracco, C., Burrows, P.N., Burt, G., Buttenschön, B., Butterworth, A., Cascella, M., Chattopadhyay, S., Chevallay, E., Cipiccia, S., Damerau, H., Deacon, L., Dirksen, P., Doebert, S., Dorda, U., Elsen, E., Farmer, J., Fartoukh, S., Fedosseev, V., Feldbaumer, E., Fiorito, R., Fonseca, R., Friebel, F., Geschonke, G., Goddard, B., Gorn, A.A., Grulke, O., Gschwendtner, E., Hansen, J., Hessler, C., Hillenbrand, S., Hofle, W., Holloway, J., Huang, C., Hüther, M., Jaroszynski, D. ORCID logoORCID:, Jensen, L., Jolly, S., Joulaei, A., Kasim, M., Keeble, F., Kersevan, R., Kumar, N., Li, Y., Liu, S., Lopes, N., Lotov, K.V., Lu, W., Machacek, J., Mandry, S., Martin, I., Martorelli, R., Martyanov, M., Mazzoni, S., Meddahi, M., Merminga, L., Mete, O., Minakov, V.A., Mitchell, J., Moody, J., Müller, A.-S., Najmudin, Z., Noakes, T.C.Q., Norreys, P., Osterhoff, J., Öz, E., Pardons, A., Pepitone, K., Petrenko, A., Plyushchev, G., Pozimski, J., Pukhov, A., Reimann, O., Rieger, K., Roesler, S., Ruhl, H., Rusnak, T., Salveter, F., Savard, N., Schmidt, J., von der Schmitt, H., Seryi, A., Shaposhnikova, E., Sheng, Z.M. ORCID logoORCID:, Sherwood, P., Silva, L., Simon, F., Soby, L., Sosedkin, A.P., Spitsyn, R.I., Tajima, T., Tarkeshian, R., Timko, H., Trines, R., Tückmantel, T., Tuev, P.V., Turner, M., Velotti, F., Verzilov, V., Vieira, J., Vincke, H., Wei, Y., Welsch, C.P., Wing, M., Xia, G., Yakimenko, V., Zhang, H. and Zimmermann, F.;