Penalty-free multi-objective evolutionary approach to optimization of anytown water distribution network

Siew, Calvin and Tanyimboh, Tiku T. and Seyoum, Alemtsehay G. (2016) Penalty-free multi-objective evolutionary approach to optimization of anytown water distribution network. Water Resources Management, 30 (11). 3671–3688. ISSN 0920-4741 (

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This paper describes the development and application of a new multi-objective evolutionary optimization approach for the design and upgrading of water distribution systems with multiple pumps and service reservoirs. The optimization model employs a pressure-driven analysis simulator that accounts for the minimum node pressure constraints and conservation of mass and energy. Pump scheduling, tank siting and tank design are integrated seamlessly in the optimization without introducing additional heuristic procedures. The computational solution of the optimization problem is entirely penalty-free, thanks to pressure-driven analysis and the inclusion of explicit criteria for tank depletion and replenishment. The model was applied to the Anytown network that is a benchmark optimization problem. Many new solutions were achieved that are cheaper and offer superior performance compared to previous solutions in the literature. Detailed and extensive simulations of the solutions achieved were carried out. Spatial and temporal variations in water quality were investigated by simulating the chlorine residual and disinfection by-products in addition to water age. The hydraulic requirements were satisfied; efficiency of pumps was consistently high; effective operation of the new and existing tanks was achieved; water quality was improved; and overall computational efficiency was high. The formulation is entirely generic.