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Literary linguistics: Open Access research in English language

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by English Studies at Strathclyde. Particular research specialisms include literary linguistics, the study of literary texts using techniques drawn from linguistics and cognitive science.

The team also demonstrates research expertise in Renaissance studies, researching Renaissance literature, the history of ideas and language and cultural history. English hosts the Centre for Literature, Culture & Place which explores literature and its relationships with geography, space, landscape, travel, architecture, and the environment.

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Effectiveness of Scotland's National Naloxone Programme for reducing opioid-related deaths : a before (2006-10) versus after (2011-13) comparison

Bird, Sheila M. and McAuley, Andrew and Perry, Samantha and Hunter, Carole (2016) Effectiveness of Scotland's National Naloxone Programme for reducing opioid-related deaths : a before (2006-10) versus after (2011-13) comparison. Addiction. ISSN 0965-2140

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Abstract

Aims: To assess the effectiveness for Scotland's National Naloxone Programme (NNP) bycomparison between 2006-10 (before) and 2011-13 (after NNP started in January2011) and to assess cost-effectiveness. Design: This was a pre-post evaluation of a national policy. Cost-effectiveness was assessedby prescription costs against life-years gained per opioid-related death (ORD) averted. Setting: Scotland, in community settings and all prisons. Intervention: Brief training and standardized naloxone supply became available to individuals at risk of opioid overdose. Measurements: ORDs as identified by National Records of Scotland. Look-back determined the proportion of ORDs who, in the 4 weeks before ORD, had been (i) released from prison (primary outcome) and (ii) released from prison or discharged from hospital (secondary). We report 95% confidence intervals for effectiveness inreducing the primary (and secondary) outcome in 2011-13 versus 2006-10. Prescription costs were assessed against 1 or 10 life-years gained per averted ORD. Findings: In 2006-10, 9.8% of ORDs (193 of 1970) were in people released from prison within 4 weeks of death, whereas only 6.3% of ORDs in 2011-13 followed prison release(76 of 1212, P < 0.001; this represented a difference of 3.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-5.4%)]. This reduction in the proportion of prison release ORDs translates into 42 fewer prison release ORDs (95% CI =19-65) during 2011-13, when 12 000 naloxone kits were issued at current prescription cost of £225 000. Scotland's secondary outcome reduced from 19.0 to 14.9%, a difference of 4.1% (95% CI = 1.4-6.7%). Conclusions: Scotland's National Naloxone Programme, which started in 2011, was associated with a 36% reduction in the proportion of opioid-related deaths that occurred in the 4 weeks following release from prison.