Adiabatic cooling of bosons in lattices to magnetically ordered quantum states

Schachenmayer, Johannes and Weld, David M. and Miyake, Hirokazu and Siviloglou, Georgios A. and Ketterle, Wolfgang and Daley, Andrew J. (2015) Adiabatic cooling of bosons in lattices to magnetically ordered quantum states. Physical Review A, 92 (4). 041602. ISSN 1050-2947 (

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We suggest and analyze a scheme to adiabatically cool bosonic atoms to picokelvin temperatures which should allow the observation of magnetic ordering via superexchange in optical lattices. The starting point is a gapped phase called the spin Mott phase, where each site is occupied by one spin-up and one spin-down atom. An adiabatic ramp leads to an xy-ferromagnetic phase. We show that the combination of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group methods with quantum trajectories can be used to fully address possible experimental limitations due to decoherence, and demonstrate that the magnetic correlations are robust for experimentally realizable ramp speeds. Using a microscopic master equation treatment of light scattering in the many-particle system, we test the robustness of adiabatic state preparation against decoherence. Due to different ground-state symmetries, we also find a metastable state with xy-ferromagnetic order if the ramp crosses to regimes where the ground state is a z ferromagnet. The bosonic spin Mott phase as the initial gapped state for adiabatic cooling has many features in common with a fermionic band insulator, but the use of bosons should enable experiments with substantially lower initial entropies.