The pattern of variation between diarrhoea and malaria coexistence with corresponding risk factors in, Chikhwawa, Malawi : a bivariate multilevel analysis

Masangwi, Salule Joseph and Ferguson, Neil and Grimason, Anthony and Morse, Tracy and Kazembe, Lawrence (2015) The pattern of variation between diarrhoea and malaria coexistence with corresponding risk factors in, Chikhwawa, Malawi : a bivariate multilevel analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12 (7). pp. 8526-8541. ISSN 1660-4601

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    Abstract

    Developing countries face a huge burden of infectious diseases, a number of which co-exist. This paper estimates the pattern and variation of malaria and diarrhea coexistence in Chikhwawa, a district in Southern Malawi using bivariate multilevel modelling with Bayesian estimation. A probit link was employed to examine hierarchically built data from a survey of individuals (n = 6,727) nested within households (n = 1,380) nested within communities (n = 33). Results show significant malaria [σ2ul = 0.901 (95% CI : 0.746,1.056) ] and diarrhea [σ2ul = 1.009  (95% CI : 0.860,1.158) ] variations with a strong correlation between them [ru(1,2) = 0.565 ] at household level. There are significant malaria [σ2v1 = 0.053 (95% CI : 0.018,0.088) ] and diarrhea [σ2v2 = 0.099 (95% CI : 0.030,0.168 ] variations at community level but with a small correlation [rv(1,2) = 0.124 ] between them. There is also significant correlation between malaria and diarrhea at individual level [re(1,2) 0.241]. These results suggest a close association between reported malaria-like illness and diarrheal illness especially at household and individual levels in Southern Malawi.