Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan

Riaz, Humayun and Godman, Brian and Bashir, Sajid and Hussain, Shahzad and Mahmood, Sidra and Waseem, Durdana and Malik, Farnaz and Raza, Syed Atif (2016) Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica. pp. 787-794. ISSN 0001-6837

Full text not available in this repository.Request a copy from the Strathclyde author

Abstract

Irrational drug use practices are a burden to healthcare facilities. Poor prescribing practices affect the overall management and cost of treatment of non-communicable diseases that are the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In an effort to improve prescribing practices, this study was designed to assess prescribing, consultation and facility indicators in healthcare facilities of Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan from December 2012 to December 2013. In this cross-sectional study, random and convenient sampling were used to collected data from both private and public healthcare facilities. Quantitative data was collected using structured questionnaire, observations and prescription analysis whereas qualitative information on factors influencing prescribing practices was obtained by interviewing medical practitioners. A total of 13693 prescriptions were obtained from 500 patient-prescriber encounters. Results show that history taking, physical examination and diagnoses were adequate while generic prescribing was four fold less than drugs prescribed by brands. Average number of drugs prescribed was 4.63 with more prescribing tendency in private facilities. 45.07% prescription costs were less than Rs. 150. Sulfonylureas, statins and ACE inhibitors were highly prescribed drugs for diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Prescribing practices were dominantly influenced by severity of disease (73% Punjab; 81% Sindh), patient age (75% Punjab; 68% Sindh) and availability of drugs (62% Punjab; 56% Sindh) whereby 91% practitioners in Sindh and 52% in Punjab rely on medical representatives as the source of drug information. Moreover, the pharmacy and therapeutic committees in all facilities were non-functional along with non-availability of essential drug list n 87% heal facilities. Thus, there are considerable opportunities to improve the rational use of medicines in Pakistan including low prices for generics, physician education, prescribing guidelines and formularies.