Picture of model of urban architecture

Open Access research that is exploring the innovative potential of sustainable design solutions in architecture and urban planning...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content by researchers in the Department of Architecture based within the Faculty of Engineering.

Research activity at Architecture explores a wide variety of significant research areas within architecture and the built environment. Among these is the better exploitation of innovative construction technologies and ICT to optimise 'total building performance', as well as reduce waste and environmental impact. Sustainable architectural and urban design is an important component of this. To this end, the Cluster for Research in Design and Sustainability (CRiDS) focuses its research energies towards developing resilient responses to the social, environmental and economic challenges associated with urbanism and cities, in both the developed and developing world.

Explore all the Open Access research of the Department of Architecture. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Antimicrobial efficacy of 405nm light against Clostridium difficile : evidence of enhanced sporicidal activity when combined with disinfectants

Moorhead, Sian and MacLean, Michelle and Coia, John and Anderson, John (2014) Antimicrobial efficacy of 405nm light against Clostridium difficile : evidence of enhanced sporicidal activity when combined with disinfectants. In: The 9th Healthcare Infection Society International Conference 2014, 2014-11-16 - 2014-11-18, Lyon Convention Centre.

Full text not available in this repository. Request a copy from the Strathclyde author


Clostridium difficile can cause major contamination problems due to its ability to form highly infectious and resilient spores which can survive in the environment for prolonged periods. Recent work has demonstrated the use of antimicrobial 405nm light for environmental decontamination within hospitals, however further information relating to efficacy against spores is required. The aim of this investigation was to establish the efficacy of 405nm light for inactivation of C. difficile vegetative cells and spores, and to establish whether spore susceptibility can be enhanced by the combined use of 405nm light with low concentration chlorinated and non-chlorinated disinfectants. C. difficile vegetative cells and spore suspensions were exposed to increasing doses of 405nm light (70-225mW/cm2) to establish sensitivity. Exposures were repeated with spores suspended in a range of routine hospital disinfectants at varying concentrations. A 99.9% reduction in vegetative cell population was demonstrated with a dose of 252J/cm2, however spores demonstrated higher resilience, with a 10-fold increase in dose required. Enhanced sporicidal activity was achieved when spores were exposed in the presence of low concentration disinfectant s, with 50% increase in susceptibility when exposed in the presence of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite. C. difficile vegetative cells and spores can be successfully inactivated using 405nm light, and the sporicidal efficacy can be significantly enhanc ed when exposed in the presence of low concentrations of disinfectants. Further research may lead to potential use of 405nm light decontamination in combination with hospital disinfectants to enhance C. difficile cleaning and infection control procedures.