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Research activity at Architecture explores a wide variety of significant research areas within architecture and the built environment. Among these is the better exploitation of innovative construction technologies and ICT to optimise 'total building performance', as well as reduce waste and environmental impact. Sustainable architectural and urban design is an important component of this. To this end, the Cluster for Research in Design and Sustainability (CRiDS) focuses its research energies towards developing resilient responses to the social, environmental and economic challenges associated with urbanism and cities, in both the developed and developing world.

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The impact of eastward enlargement on construction labour markets in European Union member states

Langford, David and Agapiou, Andrew (2007) The impact of eastward enlargement on construction labour markets in European Union member states. In: People and Culture in Construction. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 205-221. ISBN 9780203640913

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This chapter concerns the impact of labour migration on the construction industry in the enlarged European Union (EU). It reviews the varying patterns of employment for construction labour in Europe and considers how these different employment conditions influence the labour process. The movement of construction labour within Europe is considered and the chapter argues that diverse economic and geographical conditions will influence the quantity of migrant labour in different European countries. Labour migration was small in the pre- 2004 EU and is likely to remain small in terms of the numbers currently involved in the EU construction industries; nevertheless, it is expected to grow in the near future. Finally, the benefits and risks of labour migration are considered from the perspective of the migrant worker and indigenous construction employees in respect of wage levels and productivity.