Frequency-dependent ultrasound-induced transformation in E. coli

Deeks, Jeremy and Windmill, James and Agbeze-Onuma, Maduka and Kalin, Robert M and Argondizza, Peter and Knapp, Charles W (2014) Frequency-dependent ultrasound-induced transformation in E. coli. Biotechnology Letters, 36 (12). pp. 2461-2465. ISSN 0141-5492 (

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Ultrasound-enhanced gene transfer (UEGT) is continuing to gain interest across many disciplines; however, very few studies investigate UEGT efficiency across a range of frequencies. Using a variable frequency generator, UEGT was tested in E. coli at six ultrasonic frequencies. Results indicate frequency can significantly influence UEGT efficiency positively and negatively. A frequency of 61 kHz improved UEGT efficiency by ~70 % higher, but 99 kHz impeded UEGT to an extent worse than no ultrasound exposure. The other four frequencies (26, 133, 174, and 190 kHz) enhanced transformation compared to no ultrasound, but efficiencies did not vary. The influence of frequency on UEGT efficiency was observed across a range of operating frequencies. It is plausible that frequency-dependent dynamics of mechanical and chemical energies released during cavitational-bubble collapse (CBC) are responsible for observed UEGT efficiencies.


Deeks, Jeremy, Windmill, James ORCID logoORCID:, Agbeze-Onuma, Maduka, Kalin, Robert M, Argondizza, Peter and Knapp, Charles W ORCID logoORCID:;